ForewordIntroductionScopeNormative referencesTerms and definitionsEarthquake-resistant designSeismic hazards to buried pipelinesQualitative design considerationsGeneralWhere high earthquake resistance is neededDesign procedureEarthquake resistance calculations and safety checkingCalculation of earthquake resistance — Response displacement methodGeneralDesign earthquake motionHorizontal displacement amplitude of groundPipe body stressExpansion/contraction of joint in pipe axis directionJoint deflection angleDesign for ground deformation by earthquakeGeneralEvaluation of possibility of liquefactionChecking basic resistanceDesign for ground subsidence in soft ground (e.g. reclaimed ground)Calculating ground subsidenceBasic safety checkingPipeline system designPipeline componentsCountermeasures for large ground deformation such as liquefactionExample of earthquake resistance calculation (informative)GeneralSpecifications and conditionsGround modelVarious values of pipe profilesCross-sectional area, A Moment of inertia of area, I Pipe body stress, expansion/contraction and deflection angle of joint due to earthquake motionsCalculation of seismic propertiesShear elastic wave velocity by layerAverage shear elastic wave velocity of surface layer, V Predominant period of subsurface layer, T Wavelength, L Apparent wavelength, L′ CalculationHorizontal displacement amplitude of ground, () Ground strain in pipe axis direction, ε Rigidity coefficient of ground, K, K Transfer coefficient of ground displacement, α, α Stress correction factor for pipelines with expansion-flexible joints, ξ, ξ Pipe body stress, , , Amount of expansion/contraction of joint in pipe axis direction, u Deflection angle of joint, θ Summary of calculation resultsRelationship between seismic intensity scales and ground surface acceleration (informative)Example of calculation of liquefaction resistance coefficient value (informative)GeneralCalculation conditionsSoil layers modelGround acceleration for designCalculation of ground shear stress ratio during earthquakesReduction coefficient of shear stress along depth, γ Correction factor for cyclic load of seismic motion, γ Total load pressure at the calculation point, σ Effective load pressure at calculation point, σ′ Ground shear stress ratio during earthquakes, L Calculation of dynamic shear strength ratio, R Equivalent N value, N Added modified N value, ΔN Modified N value, N Dynamic shear strength ratio, RF value calculationChecking pipeline resistance to ground deformation (informative)GeneralExample in pipe axis directionSpecifications and conditionsResult of safety checkingTotal amount of expansion/contraction of joint, EGround displacement in pipe axis direction, δResult of safety checkingExample in pipe perpendicular directionSpecifications and conditionsResult of checkingMaximum amount of displacement in the pipe perpendicular direction, H Result of safety checkingExample of ground subsidence calculation (informative)GeneralSpecifications and conditionsGround model for investigationSoil layer dataCalculation of ground subsidenceWeight of excavated soil, W Weight of back-filling sand, W Weight of the water in pipes, W Increased load on face A, ΔW Influence value by depth, X Increased load, ΔP Ground subsidence, δ, of each layerTotal amount of subsidence, δ Bibliography