ForewordIntroductionScopeNormative referencesTerms and definitionsPrinciplesPretest inspectionReference methodsTest designChoice of test parametersNumber of paired samplesSelection of sample pairsComposition of sample pairsPaired-increment samplesPaired-batch samplesChoice of fuel for testCokeConduct of the testGeneralCollection and preparation of test samplesOutline of test procedureGeneralSpecial precautions for moisture-test samplesDocumentationStatistical analysis and interpretationOutline of statistical procedureCalculationsStatistical procedure for identifying outliersDisposition of outliersCalculation of confidence intervals and determining biasCalculations of paired differences and sample variances and covariances of the differencesCalculation of Hotelling’s T from the bias test sample data (in matrix form)Calculation of Hotelling’s T from the bias test sample data (in algebraic form)Determination of biasReview of the 95 % confidence region for the biasTest reportExample calculations (informative)Example calculation 1GeneralDataCochran’s test for outliers (p = 2)Calculation of paired differences, sample variances and sample covariance (p = 2)Determination of extremums for moisture and dry-basis ash bias estimates (p = 2)Example calculation 2General (p = 1)Cochran’s test for outliers (p = 1)Calculation of paired differences and sample variance (p = 1)Calculation for determination of bias (p = 1)Determination of confidence intervals for moisture bias estimate (p = 1)Example calculation 3GeneralDataCochran’s test for outliers (p = 2)Calculation of paired differences, sample variances and sample covariance (p = 2)Determination of extremums for dry-basis sulfur and as-received gross calorific value bias estimates (p = 2)Bibliography