Forms, including dialogue boxes, are appropriate for data entry tasks requiring input or modification of multiple data items. Forms are used in various circumstances, including - filling forms (income tax forms, registration (school, motor vehicle), and service order completion); - entering information received over the telephone; - interactively populating data in an application (database updates, consumer profiles and e-commerce transactions); - specifying the application options and parameters (complex data retrieval requests, personalisation, system configurations settings); and - responding to a mediate request for system information (for example, using a dialogue box). Forms can vary in content and complexity from a simple field to complex data entry that involves multiple data records. Forms are often based on a visual spatial metaphor but can be implemented in other modalities (for example, voice user interfaces over the telephone). DIN EN ISO 9241-143 is concerned with the ergonomic design of forms. Form users fill-in, select entries for, modify fields and/or use, the form to retrieve information from the system. DIN EN ISO 9241-143 is aimed at a) user-interface designers , who will apply it during the development process; b) the designers of printed forms which serve as source documents; c) buyers, who will reference this part of the standard during the product procurement process; d) evaluators responsible for ensuring products meeting the requirements and recommendations of DIN EN ISO 9241-143; e) the designers of development tools to be used by interface designers; and f) end users, who will gain from the potential benefits the standard provides. DIN EN ISO 9241-143 provides a set of requirements and recommendations concerning forms. Some of these are conditional with respect to whether they are relevant in terms of context of use variables (such as particular kinds of users, tasks, environments or technologies). DIN EN ISO 9241-143 provides requirements and recommendations for the design and evaluation of forms - in which the user fills-in, selects entries for, or modifies labelled fields on, a "form" or dialogue box presented by the system. Often the system then creates or updates the data associated with the form. Form-based entries typically are in the form of typed input (abbreviations, or full names) or selections from available option lists. The requirements and recommendations of DIN EN ISO 9241-143 are applicable throughout the development process (for example, as guidance for designers during design, as a basis for heuristic evaluation, as guidance for usability testing) and in the procurement process. The application of this part of ISO 9241-143 is expected to improve the overall quality of the form, but this standard (like any other standard) will not automatically guarantee the high quality of the interface. Quality depends on specific usability criteria as set by the user, buyer or other form consumer, which may include specifications based on this standard. It shall be noted that DIN EN ISO 9241-110 describes dialogue principles that are relevant for the design of forms. These principles provide the designer and evaluator with additional information concerning the ergonomic rationale for the various recommendations given in DIN EN ISO 9241-143 and, therefore, assist in making trade-offs. However, it is often necessary to base trade-offs on other considerations as well. The committee responsible for this standard is NA 023-00-04-05 GAK "Gemeinschaftsarbeitskreis NAErg/NIA: Benutzungsschnittstellen") ("Joint working group NAErg/NIA: User interfaces") at DIN.