This International Standard specifies the functions and scopes of biomimetic structural optimization methods. They consider linear structural problems under static and fatigue loads. The methods described in this International Standard are illustrated by examples. Based on the biological model of natural growth and by use of the FEM optimization methods for technical components, computer-based biomimetic optimization tools are described as Computer Aided Optimization (CAO), Soft Kill Option (SKO), and Computer Aided Internal Optimization (CAIO). The purpose of these methods is an optimal materials application for weight reduction or enhanced capability and lifespan of the components. Additionally, a simpler and faster "Method of Tensile Triangles" is described that can be used by every design engineer. The wide range of applications of biomimetic optimization methods together with the relative ease with which users are able to understand and apply the methods enables users to perform component optimization early in the design process. The purpose of this International Standard is to familiarize users with biomimetic optimization methods as effective tools for increasing the lifespan, reducing the weight of components, and promoting the widespread use of these methods in support of sustainable development. This International Standard is intended primarily for designers, developers, engineers, and technicians, but also for all persons entrusted with the design and evaluation of load-bearing structures. The responsible German committee is Working Committee NA 062-08-60 AA "Bionik" ("Biomimetics") at DIN Standards Committee Materials Testing (NMP).