The ASTM Reference Radiographs (Comparison series for radiographic images) contain compilations of radiographic images that show various severity levels of discontinuities that can occur in castings and welded joints.
Describing discontinuities in castings, e.g. porosity or shrinkage cavities, is extremely difficult, if not impossible.
Gas pores in welded joints or in aluminium and magnesium castings are additional examples of discontinuities that are poorly suited for written descriptions.
Discontinuities can be easily evaluated by comparing them with radiographic images portraying similar types of discontinuities.
There are four to eight levels of severity for every type of discontinuity, with level 1 being the best. The discontinuities shown in the images include gas holes, microshrinkage, inclusions, incomplete melt and porosity.
The ASTM Reference Radiographs are recognized worldwide and their application is mandatory for product acceptance in numerous civil and military material specifications.
The radiographic images can be used in their entirety, or a specific selection of images and levels of severity can be chosen based upon the intended use of the final product to be evaluated.
The use of radiographic images allows the experts to determine the type of discontinuity and complete the product acceptance process quickly and accurately. The experts have a visual image in their hand rather than a table or a diagram for comparison and don’t have to carry out extensive size and distance measurements.
The ASTM Reference Radiographs allow designers, manufacturers and testing experts to “speak the same language”.
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