Technical rule 2014-12
The purpose of this Technical Report is provide an overview of methods for the determination of the bio based content of solid, liquid and gaseous products. It describes more specifically: a) a method using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis: this method is based on a statement and a verification of the composition of the products; b) methods based on measurement of stable isotopic ratio; and c) a method based on the material balance. This Technical Report gives guidance on the applicability of the different methods. The ability to determine the bio-based content of a product is an obvious prerequisite for developing the market for bio-based products. Currently, the bio-based content is usually derived from the determination of the bio-based carbon content by means of 14C measurement. This methodology is used because 14C is measurable. However, results based on the analytical 14C methodology are expressed as a fraction of bio-based carbon on the total (organic) carbon content of the sample. In some cases the bio based content of a product can differ substantially from the bio-based carbon content. For example, for products in which a fraction of the raw materials has been replaced by bio-based materials/constituents containing other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen or hydrogen (for example carbohydrate-based products), the bio based carbon content may be substantially lower than the fraction of the product that is derived from biomass. This Technical Report describes three different methodologies to determine the bio-based content in a product and proposes the development of standards. The responsible German standardization committee is Working Committee NA 172-00-11 AA "Biobasierte Produkte" ("Bio-based products") at the DIN Standards Committee Principles of Environmental Protection (NAGUS).