This International Standard specifies a method using microscopy to identify leather and distinguish it from other materials. Methods for identifying specific leathers (for example, sheep leather) are not part of this standard. A cross-section of the material is cut perpendicular to the surface. The material structure is compared with typical pictures or known samples by means of microscopy. The method should be carried out by operators experienced in material identification. This document (EN ISO 17131:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 289 "Leather", the secretariat of which is held by UNI (Italy), in collaboration with the "International Union of Leather Technologists and Chemists Societies". The responsible national committee is Working Committee NA 062-05-51 AA "Anforderungen und physikalische Prüfverfahren für Leder und seine Ausgangsprodukte" ("Requirements and physical test methods of leather and ..."), Mirror Committee of CEN/TC 289 "Leather" at the Materials Testing Standards Committee (NMP) at DIN.