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ASTM Reference Radiographs

Die ASTM Reference Radiographs (Vergleichsreihe für Durchstrahlungsbilder) beinhalten Sammlungen von Durchstrahlungsbildern, die abgestufte Inhomogenitäten, wie sie in Gussstücken und Schweißverbindungen auftreten können, darstellen.

Die Beschreibung in Worten von Inhomogenitäten in Gussstücken, z. B. Schwamm oder dendritische Schrumpfung, ist schwierig, wenn nicht gar unmöglich.

Die Gasporosität in Schweißverbindungen oder in Aluminium- und Magnesiumgussstücken stellt ein weiteres Beispiel für Inhomogenität dar, die sich für eine schriftliche Beschreibung überhaupt nicht eignet.

Inhomogenitäten können durch Vergleich mit Durchstrahlungsbildern der selben Art von Inhomogenität einfach bewertet werden.

Für jede Art von Inhomogenität gibt es vier bis acht Abstufungen, wobei Stufe 1 die Beste ist. Zu den abgebildeten Inhomogenitäten zählen Gaseinschlüsse, Schrumpfung, Fremdmaterialeinschlüsse, unvollständige Schmelze and Porosität.

Die ASTM Reference Radiographs finden weltweite Anerkennung, und in zahlreichen Werkstoffspezifikationen aus dem militärischen wie auch dem zivilen Bereich wird ihre Verwendung für die Produktabnahme vorgeschrieben.

Die Durchstrahlungsbilder können in toto verwendet werden, oder es kann entsprechend des Gebrauchs des zu bewertenden Endprodukts eine Auswahl bestimmter Bilder und Abstufungen erfolgen.

Die Verwendung der Durchstrahlungsbilder versetzt den Sachverständigen in die Lage, die Art der Inhomogenität und die Produktabnahme schnell und korrekt zu bestimmen. Der Sachverständige erhält anstatt einer Tabelle oder einem Diagramm zum Vergleich ein visuelles Bild und muss keine umfangreichen Größen- und Abstandsmessungen vornehmen.

Die ASTM Reference Radiographs ermöglichen Konstrukteuren, Herstellern und Prüfern „dieselbe Sprache zu sprechen“.

 

ASTM Reference Radiographs bestellen:

 

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Technische Regel 1985

ASTM RRE0192:1985
Reference Radiographs for E192 Investment Steel Castings of Aerospace Applications + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

Reference Radiographs are nondestructive testing standards universally accepted because of their high reliability in accept-reject actions. These reference radiographs illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in thin-wall steel investment castings. (The reference radiographs are considered to be applicable to all thin-wall steel castings, requiring close tolerances. Such castings generally include those made by the lost wax, frozen mercury, ceramicast or shell mold processes.) They are intended to provide: A guide enabling recognition of thin-wall steel casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through radiographic examination. Example radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications, and drawings. The set of reference radiographs, produced with X Rays in the range from 130 to 250 kVp, consist of 16 plates 8-1/2 by 11 in. (216 by 279 mm) in a 9-3/4 by 11-1/2 in. (248 by 292-mm) ring binder.

1722.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 1991

ASTM RRE0242:1991
Reference Radiographs for E242 Appearances of Radiographic Images as Certain Parameters Are Changed + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

Reference Radiographs are nondestructive testing standards universally accepted because of their high reliability in accept-reject actions. Reference radiographs for appearance of radiographic images as certain parameters are changed (4 figs., include 36 radiographs)

1708.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 1975

ASTM RRE0272:1975
Reference Radiographs for E272 High Strength Copper Base and Nickel Copper Alloy Castings + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

Reference Radiographs are nondestructive testing standards universally accepted because of their high reliability in accept-reject actions. These reference radiographs illustrate various categories, types, and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in high-strength copper-base, nickel-copper, and related alloy castings. These reference radiographs are reproductions of original radiographs that contain indications of discontinuities in sand-cast manganese-nickel-aluminum bronze-alloy plates. These discontinuities are representative of those found in narrow freezing range (formerly "high shrinkage"), high-strength copper and nickel-copper alloys. These reference radiographs consist of forty-five 5 by 7-in. (127 by 178-mm) nominal size reproductions (twenty made for 1-in. (25.4-mm) plate castings exposed with low voltage X-rays for thicknesses up to and including 2 in.) and twenty-five made from 3-in. (76-mm) plate castings exposed with 2 MV X-rays or Cobalt 60 isotope for thicknesses greater than 2 in. up to and including 6 in.

2919.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 1975

ASTM RRE0310:1975
Reference Radiographs for E310 Tin Bronze Castings + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

Reference Radiographs are nondestructive testing standards universally accepted because of their high reliability in accept-reject actions. Reference radiographs for tin bronze castings (22 radiographs)

1401.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 1984

ASTM RRE0505:1984
Reference Radiographs for E505 Inspection of Aluminum and Magnesium Die Castings + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

Reference Radiographs are nondestructive testing standards universally accepted because of their high reliability in accept-reject actions. These reference radiographs illustrate the categories and severity levels of discontinuities that may occur in aluminum-alloy and magnesium-alloy die castings. They are intended to provide: A guide enabling recognition of discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and severity level through radiographic examination. Example radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications, and drawings. The set of reference radiographs consists of five 8-1/2 by 11 in. cardboard frames containing radiographs covering discontinuities in aluminum and magnesium alloy die-castings. The first four frames each contain two sets of four graded levels of increasing severity, while the last frame contains two ungraded radiographs. The five frames are contained in a 10-1/2 by 11-1/2 in. ring binder.

835.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 1977

ASTM RRE0592:1977
E592 Guide to Obtainable ASTM Equivalent Penetrameter Sensitivity for Radiography of Steel Plates 1/4 to 2 in. (6 to 51 mm) Thick with X Rays and 1 to 6 in. (25 to 152 mm) Thick with Cobalt 60 + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

Reference Radiographs are nondestructive testing standards universally accepted because of their high reliability in accept-reject actions. Guide for Equivalent Pentrameter Sensitivity Between X-rays and Cobalt-60 (8 radiographs - 6 x-rays, 2 Co-60)

809.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 1995

ASTM RRE1648:1995
Reference Radiographs for E1648 Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

The reference radiographs illustrate various types and severity levels of discontinuities in aluminum fusion welds that may be revealed by radiographic examination. These reference radiographs do not specify the acceptable level of these discontinuities; rather they provide a visual reference for communicating the acceptable level. The reference radiographs consist of a set of eight plates (8.5×11 (22 by 28 cm)), covering base material up to and including 0.75 in (19 mm) in thickness. A copy of the current ASTM standard is included with the purchase of these reference radiographs.

907.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 1997

ASTM RRE1936:1997
Adjunct to E1996 Standard Reference Radiograph for Evaluating the Performance of Radiographic Digitization Systems + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

This reference radiograph provides a series of test targets to provide a vehicle for the evaluation of spatial resolution, density contrast sensitivity, dynamic range, and spatial linearity as well as other aspects of a digitization system. The test targets are suitable for evaluating a digitization system with a spatial resolution down to ?1/1000 in. (25 micrometres (?)) a density contrast sensitivity down to 0.02 optical density (OD), a density range of 0.5 to 4.5 OD, and a film size capacity of 14 in. (355 mm) wide by 17 in. (431 mm) long. The reference radiograph has five types of targets that may be used to evaluate various parameters of the digitization system. The targets are located within a background density of ? 3.0 OD. The reference radiograph is divided into three areas with sizes of 8 in. (203 mm) by 10 in. (254 mm), 11 in. (279 mm) by 14 in. (355 mm), and 14 in. (355 mm) by 17 in. (430 mm). These have been created for digitization systems unable to accommodate film sizes up to 14 in. by 17 in.

556.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 2005

ASTM RRE2422:2005
Reference Radiograph E2422 Standard Digital Reference Images for Inspection of Aluminum Castings

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

Thirteen digital reference images, previously only available as film reference radiographs (ASTM E155), are now available in a digitized format. The images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in aluminum-alloy castings. This 2 DVD set consists of the 13 digital files, software to load the desired format, and specific instructions on the loading process. One DVD provides seven digital images of 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) castings; and the second DVD provides six digital images of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) castings. These images illustrate eight grades of severity and contain an image of a step wedge and two line pair gages. A copy of the current ASTM standard is included with the purchase of these reference radiographs. The images may be installed as 16-bit TIFF files or as DICONDE files and may be installed for negative or positive image polarity. The images may be installed at resolutions to match the effective resolution of various digital detectors in increments of 10 microns.

DVD

601.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.

Technische Regel 2010

ASTM RRE2660:2010
Standard Digital Reference Images for E2660 Investment Steel Castings for Aerospace Applications + Active Standard

Diesen Artikel bestellen wir extra für Sie, daher kann die Lieferung 2-3 Wochen in Anspruch nehmen.

Sixteen digital reference images, previously only available as film reference radiographs (ASTM E192), are now available from ASTM International. The images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in precision investment castings. The reference images are created from castings in iron-based alloys, but are commonly used also for nickel and cobalt based alloys common in turbine engine components. This 3 DVD set consists of the 16 digital files, software to load the desired format, and specific instructions on the loading process. A copy of the current ASTM standard is included with the purchase of these reference radiographs. Disk one includes the install program, the ungraded plate of Discrete Discontinuities (including: Foreign Material More Dense, Cold Shut, Hot Tear, Cold Crack, Misrun and Core Shift), graded series for Foreign Material Less Dense in three thicknesses inch, 1/8 inch, 3/8 inch, and 3/4 inch, and graded series of Gas Holes for 1/8 and 3/8 inch. Disk two includes the graded series for Gas Holes at 3/4 inch and for Dendritic Shrinkage at all three thicknesses. It also includes the ungraded plate of indications including Mold Buckle (positive and negative), Mold Ridge, Excess Metal in Cracked Core, and columnar and Mottled Diffraction Patterns. Disk three includes graded series of Sponge Shrinkage for all three thicknesses as well as graded series of Shrinkage Cavity and Filamentary Shrinkage, both illustrated in 3/4 inch material. The graded series each illustrate eight grades of severity. A copy of the current ASTM standard is included with the purchase of these reference radiographs. The images may be installed as 16-bit TIFF files or as DICONDE files and may be installed for negative or positive image polarity. The images may be installed at resolutions to match the effective resolution of various digital detectors in increments of 10 microns.

DVD

835.00 EUR inkl. MwSt.